Monday, 2 February 2015

General Introduction of Bihar

Nomenclature and Establishment

How Bihar is named as Bihar ?
In 12th Century, Turkish invader Mohammed Gori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan of Ajmer in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192, and hence established Turkish rule in India. At this time some of the slave Generals of Mohammed Gori moved to the east of India. In the leadership of Bakhtiyar Khilji, muslims entered Bihar for the first time. This era is known as medieval time in the history of India (1200 A.D. - 1750 A.D.). In this era, there were many Buddhist Viharas('Buddhist monastery', referred to "dwellings" or "refuges" used by wandering monks during the rainy season.) in Bihar. Therefore, muslims started calling this geographical area as 'Vihar', which later called as 'Bihar'. 
Historical name of Bihar was Magadh and the historical name of Patna was Patliputra.

Bihar was earlier known as 'Odantpuri'. The name 'Bihar' was firstly find mentioned in the book of Mihnaj-i-Siraj - 'Tabaqat-i-Nasiri'. During the time of ruling of Turk-Afghans, because of its greenery, healthy air and fertile soil, it is called as 'Basant ka Pradesh'(i.e. Land of Spring season) and then this land is called as 'Bihar'.

Because of many Buddhist Vihara(monastery) in this geographical location, it is called as 'Bihar'.

The first muslim ruler who gained control over the area was Mohammed Bin Bhaktiyar Khilji, then the Tughlaq rulers ruled the area.

When Bihar separated from Bengal ?
The announcement of separation of Bihar from Bengal was made in Delhi Darbar in 1911. The official declaration was made on 22 March, 1912. Hence 22 March is observed as 'Bihar Diwas' or 'Bihar Day' every year. Bihar along with Orissa came into existence on 1 April, 1912. Therefore we celebrate 'Bihar Foundation Day' on 1 April every year.

On 12 December 1911, in Delhi Darbar, the proclamation was made to separate Bihar and Orissa provinces from Bengal. On 1 April, 1936, Orissa is separated from Bihar.

The earliest evidences found from which location in Bihar ?
The earliest evidence of Stone Age Civilisation was found from Munger and Nawada in Bihar which were of time between 50-30,00,000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.

The present form of Bihar came into existence in which year?
fIn 1936, Bihar was separated from Orissa. On 15 November, 2000, Bihar was separated from Jharkhand and thus Jharkhand became the 28th State of the nation. Hence, the present form of Bihar was came into existence in 2000.

The geographical area of Bihar was first mentioned in which epic?
'Shatpath Brahmana' that is associated with Shukla Yajurveda mentioned that a saint named 'Videh Madhav' has established 'Videh' state near the bank of Sadanira (Gandak) river. This state is today known as Bihar.

Capital, State Emblems and Languages

Who has established the city of Patna?
From Magadh dynasty to many other historical kingdoms, Patlputra was the capital of Bihar. But in 1541 A.D., the Afghan ruler Shershah Suri has re-established the city and founded Patna; the capital of Bihar

The name Patliputra was given by - Ruler of Harayank dynasty; Udayin 

The name Ajimabad was given by - Mughal ruler Aurangzeb.

The grandest city of the world was - Patliputra.

Patliputra was the capital of which rulers ?
Rulers of Haryank Dynasty, rulers of Mauryan Empire and rulers of Gupta dynasty.

Patna lies between which Rivers?
Patna lies between Ganga, Son and Punpun river. Ganga is in north of Patna, Son is in west of Patna and Punpun is in south of Ganga.

State Emblems of Bihar?
State symbol of Bihar - Bodhi tree.
State Tree of Bihar - Peepal tree (declared in 2013)
State Flower of Bihar - Marigold flower (declared in 2013)
State bird of Bihar - Sparrow(or Goriya) (declared in 2013)
State Animal of Bihar - Ox (declared in 2013)
State Fish of Bihar - Desi Magur (declared in 2008)
State song(Rajya geet) of Bihar - 'Mere bharat ke kanthdhaar, tujhko sat-sat vandan Bihar....' (declared in 2011 and written by Satyanarayan)
State Anthem(Prayer song) of Bihar - 'Meri raftar pe suraj ki kiran naaj kare, aisi parvaaj de maalik ki gagan naaj kare..........' (declared in 2011 and written by M.R. Chisti)
State Game of Bihar - Kabbadi ( In 2011, Kabaddi World Cup was organised in Patna, influenced by which it is declared as state Game of Bihar in 2011.)

Ganga is not state river of Bihar but it is National river of India. In 2008, Ganga is declared as National river of India.

Is Gangetic Dolphin a State Aquatic Animal of Bihar?
No, Gangetic Dolphin is not State Aquatic Animal of Bihar but in 2009, it is declared as State Aquatic Animal of India .
Gangetic Dolphin is called as 'Suns' or 'Sons' in Bihar. The Gangetic dolphins are blind. They have no lens in theirs eye. They found their prey through echo or smell. Dolphin is called as 'Son of RIver'.

Major language of Bihar?
Maithli, Bhojpuri, Magahi, Vajjika and Angika. (Vajji and Anga were Mahajanpadas in Bihar)

Official languages of Bihar?
First official language - Hindi
Second official language - Urdu
English is also used in official works.

Which language of Bihar is listed in 8th schedule of Indian Constitution?
Hindi, Urdu and Maithli.

Georaphical location, Area and Boundaries

Bihar is located between which latitudes?
24°20'10'' North - 27°31'15''

Bihar is located between which longitudes?
83°19'50'' East - 88°17'40'' East

Does Tropic of Cancer passes through Bihar?
Tropic of Cancer passes through Ranchi that is 200 km south of Bihar.

What is the percentage of area Bihar has when compared with undivided Bihar?

Area of Bihar and it is what percent of area of India?
Area of Bihar - 94,163 sq. Km.
Position of Bihar by Area - 13th
Rural area - 92.358.40 sq. Km.(98.5% of total area of Bihar)
Urban area - 1804.60 sq. Km.

States with area greater than Bihar?
State with area greater than Bihar(in descending order):
1.Rajasthan(3,42,239 sq.Km.)
2.Madhya Pradesh(3,08,245 sq. km.)
3.Maharashtra(3,07,713 sq.km.)
4.Uttar Pradesh(2,22,236 sq.km.)
5.Jammu and Kashmir(1,06,024 sq.km.)
6.Gujarat(1,06,024 sq.km.)
7.Karnataka(1,91,791 sq.km.)
8.Andhra Pradeh(1,60,205 sq.km.)
9.Odisha(1,55,707 sq.km.)
10.Chattisgarh(1,35,191 sq.km.)
11.Tamil Nadu(1,30,058 sq.km.)
13.Bihar(94,163 sq.km.)

Largest and smallest districts of Bihar?
Three largest districts of bihar with area in descending order:
West Champaran(5,228 sq.km.)
Gaya(4,976 sq.km.)
East Champaran(3,968 sq.km.)

Three smallest districts of bihar with area in ascending order:
Shivhar(349 sq.km.)
Shekhpura(689 sq.km.)
Lakhisarai(1228 sq.km.)

Administrative units of Bihar?
 Administrative Units
CD Blocks534
Number of Revenue Villages45,103
Number of Urban Agglomerations14
Number of Towns199
  - Statutory Towns139
  - Non-Statutory Towns60
Police Stations853
  - Civil Police Stations813
  - Railway Police Stations40
Police Districts43
  - Civil Police District39
  - Railway Police District4

International boundary share by Bihar?
India share total of 1752 km with Nepal, out of which, one-fourth is shared by Bihar.
7 districts that share boundary with Nepal are:
West Champaran, East Champaran, Sitamadhi, Madhubani, Supaul, Araria and Kishanganj.

Districts share boundary with Uttar Pradesh?
Eight districts of Bihar share boundary with Uttar Pradesh are:
West Champaran, Gopalganj, Siwan, Saran, Bhojpur, Baxar, Bhabua and Rohtas

Districts share boundary with Jharkhand?
Eight districts of Bihar share boundary with Jharkhand are:
Rohtas, Aurangabad, Gaya, Nawada, Jamui, Banka, Bhagalpur and Katihar.

Districts share boundary with West Bengal?
Kishanganj and Katihar share boundary with West Bengal.

The districts of Bihar that share inter-state boundary with two states?
Rohtas - Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand.
Katihar - West Bengal and Jharkhand.

 Population of Bihar : Census 2011

 Key Statistics - as per 2011 Census (Provisional)
  - Male5,41,85,347
  - Female4,96,19,290
Population (0~6 Years Group)
  - In Absolute Numbers1,85,82,229
  - Percentage of Total Population17.90%
  - In Absolute Numbers5,43,90,254
  - Percentage of Total Population63.82%(India - 74.04%)
73.39%(India - 82.14%)
53.33%(India - 65.46%)
Decadal Population Growth (2001-2011) 
  - Absolute2,08,06,128
  - As Percentage25.07%(India - 17.6%)
Highest Decadal Growth atMadhepura District (30.65%)
Lowest Decadal Growth atGopalganj District (18.83%)
  - Civil Police Stations813
  - Railway Police Stations40
Density of Population1,102 per sq kms
  - Highest DensitySheohar, 1882 per sq kms
  - Lowest DensityKaimur, 488 per sq kms
Most Populous DistrictPatna: 57,72,804
Least Populous DistrictSheikhpura: 6,34,927
Sex Ratio (Females/Thousand Males)916(India - 940)
  - Highest Ratio(Gopalganj) 1,015
  - Lowest Ratio(Munger and Bhagalpur) 879
Highest Literacy RateRohtas, 75.59%
Lowest Literacy RatePurnia, 52.49%
Average Population of a District27,31,701

Universities of Bihar

Patna University - established in 1917.

Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya - established in 1962.

Chanakya National Law College, Patna - 2009

Aryabhatta Knowledge University , Patna
This University is established for the regulation and control of all professional courses like Medical, Engineering, Management and others offered by colleges.

Nalanda International University, Nalanda
Re-established - 25 November,2010.
Study session started in - 1 September, 2014

Vikramshila International University, Vikramshila, Bhagalpur - declared in 2014.

Aligarh Muslim University(New Branch), Kishanganj - 2010
It is the branch of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh.

Central Universities in Gaya and Motihari.
Thus including these two and Aligarh Muslim University, Bihar have 3 Central Universities.

Patna Medical College and Hospital(PMCH) - 1925

National Institute of Fashion Technology - 2008

Rajendra Agriculture University,Pusa - Samastipur

Khudabaksh Library
The library has the largest collection of persian manuscripts in the country.

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