Wednesday, 4 February 2015

Bihar SSC - History Of Bihar

History Of Bihar

Ancient Bihar
From which place in Bihar we got evidence of Archaeological sources?
We got Archaeological sources from Munger, Chirand(Saran), Chechar(Vaishali), Sonepur(Gaya), Maner(Patna) in Bihar.

History of Munger; a district of Bihar
Munger is called 'Modgiri' in Mahabharat. Raja Chandra has laid the foundation of Munger. Karnachur mountains is related to Mahabharat and is said that in this place Karna and Bhima had fought.

The present site of the city was apparently comprised within the Kingdom of Anga, with the capital at Champa near Bhagalpur

In modern history Munger again came in to prominence in the year 1762 when Mir Qasim made Munger his capital instead of Murshidabad in Bengal.

Munger is a twin city. The twin city comprises Munger and Jamalpur situated on the southern bank of the river Ganges.

Munger is known for tobacco factory,cigarette factory, gun factory and Jamalpur has railway manufacturing unit.

Munger division has six districts - Munger, Jamui, Khagaria, Lakhisarai, Begusarai and Sheikhpura.

Sita Kund in Daryapur, Munger. It is a place where Maa Sita had given her Agni Pariksha it had hot water spring .

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary in Munger; it covers an area of around 682 sq. km and consists of a hot water spring, sambar, chital, nilgai, wild boar, tiger and panther.

Which period has not any historical evidences related with Bihar?
Vedic Period.

Whether Bihar has the historical evidences related to the Mauryan and the Gupta periods?
Yes, Bihar has the historical evidence related to the Mauryan and the Gupta period.
Mauryan Period
Lauriya Nandangarh, West Champaran, Bihar; Lauriya-Araraj, Champaran, Bihar ;Rampurva, West Champaran, Bihar and Vaishali, Bihar have the Pillars of Ashoka. Edicts, coins and ruins of the buildings were also found from these places. These all places are related to Mauryan periods 

Pillar Inscriptions - Lauriya Nandangarh, Lauriya-Araraj and Rampurva.
Minor rock Edicts -Chandan Pir mountain in Sasaram, Rohtas
Cave inscriptions - Barabar Caves, Gaya.

The all inscriptions uses Brahmi script in Prakrit language.

Gupta Period
Nalanda flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire as well as emperors like Harsha and later, the rulers of the Pala Empire(Dharamapala).The Nalanda university was founded around 427 by Kumaragupta I (415-455), son of Chandragupta II.
Srigupta I (270-290 AD) who was perhaps a petty ruler of Magadha (modern Bihar) established Gupta dynasty with Patliputra or Patna as its capital.

Types of historical coins found in India?
Mostly punch marked coins have been found in Bihar. Punch marked coins of bronze has been found in - Lohanipur, Kumhrar and Patna city, Maner, Rajagir, Bodh Gaya, Nalanda, Vaishali, Fatuha, Motihari, Munger, Chirand and Buxar. 
Coins of Raja Bhoja has been found in Nalanda.
Gold coins of Shashank(king of Bengal and contemporary of Harshavardhan) has been found from Nalanda.

Who has excavated Nalanda monastery?
Alexander Cunningham has excavated Nalanda monastery in 1861-62.
Cunningham has also excavated several historical places in Bihar like Bodh Gaya, Rajagir, Lauriya Nandangarh and others.

Which Vedic text has given an account of Videh region in Bihar?
'Shatpath Brahmana' that is associated with Shukla Yajurveda mentioned that a saint named 'Videh Madhav' has established 'Videh' state near the bank of Sadanira (Gandak) river. This state is today known as Bihar.

Where was the first republican state in the world founded?
The first republic state in the world was established by Licchavi kingdom. Licchavi was the powerful kingdom of Buddha's era. The capital city of Licchavi kingdom was Vaishali.

The state of Bihar which was prominent at the time of later Vedic period?

16 Mahajanapada that exist in 16 B.C., how many of them exist in present Bihar?
Three of the Mahajanapada have the geographical location in Bihar.
1. Magadha; capital - Rajagriha/Rajagira; present location - Patna, Gaya
2. Anga; capital - Champa; present location - Bhagalpur, Munger.
3. Vajji; capital - Vaishali/Videha/Mithila; present location - Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga.

We got account of 16 Mahajanapada in Buddhist text - Anguttara Nikaya and Jainism text - Bhagavati Sutra.

Who has ruled Magadha after the fall of Kushana?
After the fall of  Kushanas, Magadha was ruled by Licchavis.

Mahavira was the twenty-fourth and last tirthankara of Jainism.Mahavira was born in 540 B.C. at Kundigram in Vaishali district.

Which Buddhist Councils held in Bihar?
Three out of the four Buddhist Councils held in Bihar.
1. 1st Buddhist Council - 483 B.C. - held in Rajagriha - patron by Ajatashatru of Harayanaka Dynasty - Compilation of Sutta-Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka by Ananda and Upail respectively.
2. 2nd Buddhist Council - 383 B.C. - held in Vaishali - patron by Kalashoka of Shisunga Dynasty
3. 3rd Buddhist Council - 250 B.C. - held in Pataliputra - patron by Ashoka of Mauryan Dynasty - Compilation of Abhidhamma Pitaka.
4. 4th Buddhist Council - 98 A.D. - held in Kundalavana, Kashmir - Chairman - Vasumitra and Vice-Chairman - Ashvaghosa, patron by Kanishka of Kushana Dynasty - the division of Buddhist into Hinayans and Mahayans.

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