Friday, 24 April 2015

Paper 2 - History of India, National Movement, Society and Culture

Southern India : Sangam Age, Yadavas of Deogiri, Kakatiyas of Warangal,
Hoysals of Dwarsamudra and Pandyas of Madurai. Chola dynasty. Political, Social,
Economic, Religious and Cultural life.
Vijayanagar and Bahmani Empire-Political Social, Eonomic, Religions and Cultural
life, Political, Social, Economical and Cultural life of Delhi Sultanate.

Vijayanagara-Bahmani Kingdoms: Polity, Law and Other Details
http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/vijayanagara-bahmani-kingdoms-polity-law-and-other-details/2026(Nayankara System); detail account
http://holisticthought.com/vijayanagar-and-bahmani-kingdoms/ nice one
http://byjusclasses.com/sites/all/themes/professional-responsive-theme/images/pdf/History-Lecture-17-notes.pdf (another nice one)
Vijayanagar was founded in 1336 by Harihara and Bukka of the Sangama dynasty. They were originally served under the Kakatiya rulers of Warangal. They originally served under the Kakatiya ruler and when the kingdom was overrun by Tughlaqs, they shifted to Kampili. Kampili was also overtaken by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, and they were taken to Delhi and were converted to Islam. Later they were sent by the King to suppress the rebellion in Kampli. They converted back to Hinduism and with the assistance and advice of sage Vidyaranya of Sringeri, they laid the foundation of the kingdom of Vijayanagar on the banks of the river Tunghabhadra. It was called Vijayanagar meaning city of victory. The decline of the Hoysala kingdom enabled Harihara and Bukka to expand their newly founded kingdom. By 1346, they brought the whole of the Hoysala kingdom under their control.

Three important dynasties ruled Vijayanagar Empire.

  • Sangama dynasty (1336-1486 C.E.)
  • Saluva dynasty (1486 – 1505 C.E.)
  • Tuluva dynasty (1505 – 1569 C.E.)
  • Aravidu dynasty (1569 – 1672 C.E.) (Not very significant dynasty)

Ibn Battuta, the famous Muslim explorer who came to India during regime of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq, belonged to Morocco who visited Vijayanagara in the reign of Harihara I.

Domingos Paes (16th century) was a Portuguese traveller who visited the Vijayanagara Empire around the year 1520. His account of the capital Vijayanagara (Hampi,+ is the most detailed of all historic descriptions of this ancient city. He visited the city during the rule of King Krishna Deva Raya and recorded his impressions of Vijayanagara state in his Chronica.

Nayankara System - Feudal system developed which was known as Nayankar System. The military officers called as Amar Nayaks who got land in lieu of their salary and that land was called as Amaram. Amaram did not fall under Rajya directly. Amar Nayaks couldn’t introduce coins and taxes though they could maintain army and collect revenue themselves. Over the period Amar Nayaks became hereditary. There were 200 such Amar Nayaks who became very powerful as they had their own armies, source of revenue, and maintained law and order themselves in their areas.
Many of them declared themselves independent especially after the central authority declined.
Unlike Chola dynasty, Grams did not enjoy similar level of autonomy. Under Cholas they could elect their executive bodies. In Vijayanagar Empire central authority had direct role in village administration.

Virupaksh Temple built by Chalukyas in Hampi but Vijayanagar rulers later also contributed to it, Vithal Swami Temple and Rama Swami Temple built by KrishnaDevaRaya

Krishna Deva Raya was great scholar of Sanskrit and Telugu. His work Amuktmalyada in Telugu reflect his grasp on telugu literature.

Srikrishnadevaraya Krishna Deva Raya’s reign is considered the golden age of Telugu literature. Eight poets known as Astadiggaja (eight elephants in the eight cardinal points such as North, South etc.) were part of his court. According to the Vaishnavite religion there are eight elephants in eight corners in space and hold the earth in its place. Similarly these eight poets were the eight pillars of his literary assembly. Who constituted Ashtadiggajas is not certain. But, it is popularly believed to include these : Allasani Peddana, Nandi Thimmana, Madayyagari Mallana, Dhurjati, Ayyala-raju Rama-Bhadrudu, Pingali Surana, Ramaraja Bhushanudu and Tenali Rama Krishna.

Among these eight poets Allasani Peddana is considered to be the greatest and is given the title of Andhra Kavita Pitamaha (the father of Telugu poetry). Manu-charitrama which was patronised to Sri Krishna Devaraya is his popular prabhanda work.
The Bahmani kingdom reached its peak under the guidance of Mahmud Gawan. He was a Persian merchant. He came to India at the age of forty two and joined the services of Bahmani kingdom. Slowly he became the chief minister due to his personal qualities. He divided the kingdom into 8 Atraf (provinces), each headed by a Governor

The Deccan sultanates were five dynasties of various ethnic backgrounds (Afghan, Persian, Turk, Mongol etc) that ruled late medieval kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. These kingdoms became independent during the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate. In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528. In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year.

Bahmani Empire and Vijayanagar Empire had almost parallel existence. These two kingdoms fought for almost 200 years over three regions:
  1. Raichur Doab (Between Krishna and Tungabhadra)
  2. Area between Krisha and Godavari Delta
  3. Marathwada Region
Bijapur: Gol Gumbaj was a biggest dome in India built by Bijapur. It is the mausoleum of Mohammed Adil Shah, Sultan of Bijapur. The tomb, located in Bijapur, Karnataka in India

Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 when it was ruled by last Tuluva King Rama Raya, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota also called Battle of Bannihatti. After that battle, new weak dynasty, Aravidu, ruled Vijayanagar empire for almost a century.